Computerized the U.S. Navy


Grace Brewster Murray Hopper was born on December 9, 1906, in New York City. She showed an early interest in mathematics and science, and she attended Vassar College, where she was one of the few women studying engineering. After graduating from Vassar, Hopper went on to earn a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University.

During World War II, Hopper served in the United States Navy Reserve. She was assigned to the Bureau of Ships Computation Project, where she worked on the development of the Mark I computer. After the war, Hopper continued her work on computers, and she was instrumental in the development of the COBOL programming language. COBOL is still in use today, and it is one of the most widely used programming languages in the world.

Hopper retired from the Navy in 1966, but she continued to work in the field of computing. She was a strong advocate for the use of computers in education, and she wrote several books on computer programming. Hopper died on January 1, 1992, at the age of 85. She was a brilliant scientist and a pioneer in the field of computer programming. Her work has had a profound impact on the world, and she is still remembered as one of the most important figures in the history of computing.


  • Family: She was the daughter of Walter Fletcher Murray, a lawyer, and Mary Campbell Van Horne.
  • Education: She received a bachelor's degree in mathematics and physics from Vassar College in 1928 and a Ph.D. in mathematics from Yale University in 1934.
  • Scientific achievement: She was a pioneer in the field of computer programming and a leader in the development of the COBOL programming language. She also invented the first linker, a program that combines separate computer programs into a single program.
  • Awards: She received the National Medal of Technology, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the IEEE Computer Pioneer Award.